While the world’s population has been going on a rising trajectory, it has also been growing heavier by the year. Obesity is now a global health issue. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the epidemic is spawned by the pervasive issues of unhealthy diets and low physical activity. Obesity is expected to be one of the biggest killers by the year 2020.
High body mass indices (BMIs) of 30 or more plague an estimated 300 million people globally at every social class and age group, particularly in the U.S., U.K., Middle East, Australia, China, and the Pacific Islands. Much more disturbing is the phenomenon of rising child obesity which has almost tripled within the last three decades.
Notwithstanding the fatal repercussions morbidly excessive weight can have on physical health, obesity takes its toll on mental health as well.
The Relationship between Obesity and Mental Health
Research backs evidence of an intrinsic link between obesity and common mental disorders. Obesity can cause depression, anxiety, and other unhealthy mental conditions just as these mental illnesses can lead to obesity. According to the March 2011 National Obesity Observatory paper on Obesity and Mental Health, studies point to a two-way correlation between depression and obesity. “Obese persons had a 55% increased risk of developing depression over time, whereas depressed persons had a 58% increased risk of becoming obese. Another recent systematic review and meta-analysis found a weak but positive association between obesity and anxiety disorders.”
A higher incidence rate of depression occurs among morbidly obese individuals, especially those with BMIs of 35 and over. Studies also reveal that obese children often rate their quality of life lower than children suffering from cancer. The Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study disclosed that very obese individuals often had as much as or higher depression scores than patients who were afflicted with chronic pain.
Western culture places a stigma on weight and as a result, excessively overweight individuals tend to develop self-imposed social isolation, poor self-image, and low self-worth, all major contributory factors to depression. This has not been without just cause, though. Society has not been very kind to the excessively overweight. Fat people have often been ridiculed, ostracised, and stereotyped; hence leading most overweight individuals to adopt even more self destructive behaviours such as binge eating and substance abuse.
There is a silver lining though. When obese patients begin to take off significant weight, their mental state also begins to improve.
Anxiety and Mood Disorders
A study that involved NESARC data found that obese persons were one and a half times more likely to report a mood disorder or panic attacks that have been plaguing them for the past year or as long as they can remember. Extremely obese individuals were twice as likely to report the same. The anxiety phenomenon is stronger in women than in men.
Because of Western culture’s aversion to fat people, obese individuals can develop social anxiety disorder (SAD) just from the sole reason of being extremely overweight. Such a disorder has served to impair their functioning in their social milieu.
On the obverse, anxiety can breed obesity as well. Anxiety can trigger compulsive and excessive eating patterns and depress the will to engage in physical activity, two factors which generally lead to obesity over time.
What Can Be Done?
For people with mental health disorders due to obesity, there is good news. Mental health conditions significantly improve as one reduces his weight. However, making radical changes to lifestyle eating and movements may backfire if one does not make such changes with a support group or team.
Consider approaching the obesity problem with the help of qualified professionals. Your GP can draw up a safe, balanced eating plan and exercise regimen while a psychiatrist or psychologist can help you discover the core issue behind overeating and your subsequent weight gain. These professionals can also help you deal with negativity and low self-esteem.
Depending on the level of obesity, medications for obesity or surgical procedures such as gastric bypass, bariatric surgery, and the like may be prescribed. However, lifelong lifestyle changes will always be obligatory to complement and maintain obesity treatment.