Everything You Need to Know About Stress

Stress Man. Businessman suffers from a headache

What is Stress?

Stress is a normal part of a person’s everyday life. Stress is the way our body responds to daily occurrences and events. It’s a mental, physical or emotional condition which causes temporary mental or bodily tension in our bodies. It can be internal or external. Internal stress comes from an illness or a medical procedure while external stress comes from psychological, environmental, and social situations. Stress can also be bad (with negative effects) or good (with positive effects). The following areas of our bodies can be affected by stress: brain and nerves, muscle and joints, heart, stomach, pancreas, intestines and the reproductive system.


What are the causes?

Stress can be caused by numerous factors. Here are the most common causes of everyday stress:

  1. Internal Stress – This is self-made stress. A person gets stressed because he worries about things that are out of his control or when he does stressful things on purpose like paying bills just a few minutes before the cut-off.
  2. Survival Stress – This is a common response to any type of danger. It triggers the “flight or fight” function of our bodies.
  3. Environmental Stress – This is when the things around you distract you or affect your bodily functions like too much noise, unnecessary pressure and unbearable traffic.
  4. Fatigue and Overwork – This is when a person works too much and overexerts himself for an extended period of time. Stress gradually builds up in months or years and stays for a long period of time.

Business man overworked asking for help

Types of Stress

There are three types of stress:

  1. Acute Stress – This is the most common type of stress. It’s short-term and it’s caused by daily occurrences and demands. Surprisingly, it gives joy, excitement and thrill. One of the examples of acute stress is when riding a dangerous ride in a theme park.
  2. Episodic Acute Stress – This is basically acute stress that happens more frequently. One example of episodic acute stress is when a person aims to achieve an impossible goal and suffers numerous breakdowns and frustrations while achieving that goal.
  3. Chronic Stress – This is the most dangerous type of stress. It can have a devastating effect on a person’s mental, spiritual and physical health. It’s caused by long-term stressful events like miserable marriages, disastrous careers, years of identity crisis or traumatic events.


Overcoming Stress

Managing stress is not easy. But with the help of a professional and willpower, anyone can learn how to handle stress. Here are some tips on how to overcome stress:

  1. Learn some relaxation techniques like yoga and meditation.
  2. Improve your personal productivity skills.
  3. Keep a journal or diary.
  4. Engage in physical activities or sports regularly.
  5. Discover and practice your conflict resolution skills.
  6. Have a positive outlook on life.
  7. Lead a balanced life.
  8. Express yourself more.
  9. Learn how to say no.
  10. Spend more time with the people you love.
  11. Eat healthy and avoid too much sugar or junk food.
  12. If things become unbearable, never hesitate to seek the help of a professional.

Relationships and counselling

4Just like all relationships, marriages do face challenges of all sorts; small, big, simple, complex. What one may call small is what usually causes strain and stress in a marriage hence instability. However, when a partner is willing to find a solution to an impending problem and participate in problem solving, then most problems affecting relationships will not cause major hiccups, but when problems are left unattended to, bad habits develop, health problems arise as tension is also on a rise.

Stress and strain in a marriage may be faced by one partner or by both people in the marriage and problems such as poor communication, differences in parenting skills, financial problems, differences in political ideas, chronic or terminal illness of a partner and infidelity are some of the causes of this tension.

For one to identify that some problems in a relationship have been swept under the rug, there will be an increasing frequency in arguments.


When problems are swept under the rug, there might also be mental health problems such as depression for one or both people in the marriage, self esteem will be dented. Addictive behaviours such as the abuse of drugs may also occur when partners do not want to get to the root of the problem in their marriage.

It is at such times that couples seek marriage counselling since the problems in their relationship are starting to interfere with their daily lives or they are not sure if they want or can continue with their relationship. When the couple approaches a counsellor, they will need assistance but they have no idea how this help will come and how it will solve their present problem. While some couple may need to develop or better their communication skills, improve intimacy or learn how to sail through the new wave that their lives have presented, others will need the therapist to help in mediating their argument, declare which partner is more logical and the like.

There are several ways that relationship counselling or therapy for married will be done for example the Imago relationship therapy where couples are equipped with tools needed to relate with one another in healthier ways. This therapy also helps to uncover the emotional pathway that one has formed all the way from childhood to now. This is a combination of behavioural and spiritual techniques plus western psychological methods that are used to help couples unravel what their unconscious components are. Other therapies include: family therapy, couple therapy, group counselling, individual therapy.


However, all these therapies are aimed at resolving relationship problems.

Some couples address problems in their marriages using individual therapy and they apply what they have learned about themselves to their partners. Furthermore, family therapy is also good for families where the children have also been affected by the tension brought on by the strain and stress in their parents’ relationship.

What every couple or family needs to know is that counsellors are not going to take sides or advise a couple to put a halt to their relationship but will advise the couple or family to allow the therapy carry on and unfold in a natural manner without any predetermined relationship saving goal.

Through relationship therapies, couples and families are assisted by supporting the goals that they have set and also helping everyone communicate their needs, emotions, and thoughts in a clearer manner as well as to listen to the other party with a little more care.


For amazing results to be actualized during and after counselling, every involved party must at least be committed to the counselling while it lasts. There should also be a level of honesty, interest in applying what was advised during the therapy session as well as personal accountability.

In as much as starting any counselling more so relationship counselling is a very daunting task because baring your soul out before a person that already knows you in and out may make one feel naked, then saying the truth about some incidences may bring more hurt than already present. However, if couples or families can let go of that lump in their throats that causes them to trample upon the idea of relationship therapy, the rewards they will get will be greater than the fears.

Diet and Mental Health


Promoting Mental Health

According to clinical studies, about 25% of the human population will suffer from a mental illness at least once in their lives. Therefore, a person’s mental health should be well taken care of. Contrary to popular belief, it is entirely possible to prevent future mental health issues from happening. It is very important that we find a way to keep not just our bodies but also our minds healthy. As the saying goes, “An ounce of prevention is better than a pound of cure.” Of course, it’s much better to seek the help of a professional when it comes to these matters. But there’s also a convenient and simple way for us to help ourselves. One of the easiest and most effective ways to promote mental health is through a proper diet.


How Diet and Mental Health

Recent studies show that a person’s diet can greatly improve or worsen his mental health. Diet affects mental health in two ways: directly and indirectly. It can directly affect mental health through the absorption of nutrients which control our hormones, and indirectly through the emotional distress of suffering from a physical condition caused by poor diet. Different food groups can also change a person’s mood. We’ve always believed that experiencing certain emotions can make us crave for a specific food like eating ice cream when we’re depressed. But it’s a little known fact that food can actually affect our current mood, too.


Food for the Brain

Here’s a list of specific foods/vitamins/minerals and how they affect our mental health.

  1. Caffeine – A cup of coffee generally increases alertness and concentration. But too much of it can result to the feeling of anxiety, depression and nervousness.
  2. Omega-3 (fatty acids) – It improves a person’s mood and affects how our brain sends signals throughout our bodies. The lack of it can cause depression.
  3. Magnesium – People who take adequate amount of magnesium can quickly recover from depression.
  4. Folic Acid – Increased intake of this nutrient can increase how the body responds to medication, specifically for depression.
  5. Tryptophan – It can treat depression because it helps in producing serotonin.
  6. B Vitamins – Links between symptoms of schizophrenia and low levels of certain B Vitamins have been demonstrated.
  7. Sugar – The right amount of sugar improves a person’s mood and energy level.
  8. Vitamin D – It has a clear link to brain health.
  9. Zinc – A low level of zinc can result to various eating disorders especially among teens and young adults.
  10. Iron – According to research, most children with ADHD have very low amount of iron in their bodies.
  11. Vegetables – Studies have shown that eating plenty of vegetables can help protect against the development of Alzheimer’s.
  12. Saturated fats – A diet with high saturated fat and sugar can trigger schizophrenia.


In order to promote mental health, your diet should have protein, fish and a variety of food. It is also advisable to maintain a healthy weight. You should drink lots of liquids like water and juices but you should limit your alcohol intake. It’s also much better if you’ll exercise regularly and take nutritional supplements. These are just small but really effective steps in promoting and maintaining mental health.

Anger Management


What is Anger?

Anger is an emotion that a human can normally feel. It can range from slight annoyance to overpowering hatred. Anger can be felt when you’re hurt, disgusted, frustrated, disappointed, frightened or worried. Usually, it creates problem and causes unnecessary tension. Sometimes, it can also result to broken friendships, wounded egos and damaged relationships.


What is Anger Management?

Though it’s perfectly normal to feel angry sometimes, it can be a problem when it goes overboard. Controlling or dealing with your anger the right way is often referred to as anger management. It’s about discovering what makes you feel angry and why they make you feel that way. Anger management is all about understanding your body’s response to anger and learning the proper ways of expressing or controlling it.


14 Ways to Manage Anger

Here are some ways to control your anger.

  1. Take note of the things that make you angry and avoid them as much as possible.
  2. Always think before you speak to avoid misunderstandings and confrontations.
  3. Understand how your body responds to anger. This way, you’ll be more aware and might be able to prevent yourself from bursting out whenever you’re angry.
  4. Learn how to control your thinking.
  5. Be physically active. Exercise helps reduce stress and anxiety.
  6. When you feel like you’re about to lash out, count from one to ten. This is the easiest and most common way to calm yourself when you’re angry.
  7. Learn strategies on controlling anger – but only those that specifically work for you like thinking of your favorite boutique or thinking about your pet.
  8. When you feel like a situation or argument is about to blow up- take a time out.
  9. Once you’re calm and thinking straight again, let them know your side and why you are feeling that way.
  10. Breathe slowly. Or for some people; take a deep breath, hold it in and then let it out. This works all the time.
  11. Engage in fun activities that you find interesting like dancing, drawing, reading, painting and a lot more. Doing what you love and what you’re passionate about can lessen feelings of anger.
  12. Talk to a friend. If something’s bothering you, tell someone. They might be able to help you or give you their honest opinions.
  13. Make quality time with yourself. Occasionally allowing yourself to relax is already a big step.
  14. Learn how to be assertive. Let the people around you know what you’re thinking and how you’re feeling – but in a respectful and clear way.



These are just some of the simple yet effective ways of dealing with your own anger. If you feel like it’s really getting out of hand and your anger issues are affecting your everyday life including the people around you, don’t hesitate to seek the help of a professional. By doing so, you are one big step closer to fixing your problem and getting back to your old self.

How to Nurture Great Family Relationships


 When we take a look at relationships, we can not fail to look at the family because that is where one learns how to relate with those around him or her. Thereafter, one can gradually learn to relate with the world around them, however small or big. The best gifts parents or guardians can give to children are nurturing and caring. It is these gifts that allow for healthy relationships both within the family unit and with people outside that unit hence grooming well rounded people. Because of these gifts, these children will also reciprocate what they were taught to their parents or guardians when they are of advanced age. Therefore, that means that if the family relationships are not well nurtured, a lot of pain, hurt, havoc and later on crime is brought into being. For example, a son that has not been taught to relate well with family members will not know how important apologizing is, will not think that it is important to visit a grandparent who is in a home for the old. Let us see how we can best develop family relationships and how to strengthen them because they are the basis for the development of other relationships in life.


This is the epicentre of a home or family for without it the family is in disarray. Every human being desires to be loved and to love and it is in a family where love must first be seen. Love in a family setting is that close personal blend of mental and physical togetherness. Love means caring, a sense of belonging, privacy, and intimacy. An environment that is charged with love has got a sense of honesty, patience, forgiveness, tolerance, and understanding. A family is said to love when activities therein are shared, gratitude is expressed freely and genuinely. Love means that people take time to nurture it, show affection and have an attitude of positivity.


For a family to be strong there has to be devotion and a sense of loyalty among the members of the family as this shows that the family sticks together. Such family members stand by one another in stormy weather and can defend one another in case of attack from an outsider. Loyalty is that attribute that grows no matter the situation in the family; poverty or wealth, sickness or good health. Devotion and loyalty in a family will mean that even when the times are hard on any of the family members, they can count on their family members to cheer them on or to give them a shoulder to cry on. These two attributes also nurture a sense of giving and receiving hence helping people learn how to negotiate in other life relationships.


This is an essential aspect in a family because a family without a leader will not stand. Usually it is the elders within a family that take up the leadership role. For any family to survive, a set of rules or guidelines are needed for it is these that help shape the family members up and make leadership possible. These usually silent rules are made basing on how well the family members understand one another, not on force. These guidelines usually flow from the adults to the younger ones with firmness yet with fairness for results to be achieved. It is in such strong families that people learn to have their say with respect, decision making is taught at an early age and even the younger ones learn how to make and enforce rules. Like in any other society, the initial stages may not pass without crisis but working together and listening to one another will enable these rules to be laid down and followed willingly.



It is within a family that skills, values and behaviours are learned. In families, people are expected to control and manage their learning experiences for it is these that help in establishing a pattern for home life and guide children when they are out of home. Families are also expected to involve the neighbourhood, school, business, church and government in the raising of children however, never allow the forces of our societies to rule our homes and family lives. Strong families are the ones that learn through experience and teach by example while explaining and executing family values.


It is said that laughter is medicine to the soul and this also for our families. Humour helps families to escape the tensions of life for through laughter we get to see who we are in an honest and objective way. Family building is a very serious matter however; taking it too seriously causes tension among family members. It is through laughter that balance is brought into the efforts we make in family building and makes life look more real. However, laughter must not be brought on because one is miserable, it should be natural and positive in nature. Laughing at someone causes division while laughing together fosters unity. Leaning to use laughter positively enables families to bond more, release tension and build more energies to work better.



However, many of us wonder how we can manage to keep our family relationships strong for a really long time if not forever. This because very many storms come our way that we tend to violate the values we were taught. Here are some ways or patterns we can use to keep our family relationships great.


For a family to stay strong; not divided, talking and showing appreciation for one another is important. As humans, it has been said that we have a strong need for love; however, we also have a strong need for appreciation. Some people work so hard even when the duty is too much for them just for the sake of being appreciated at the end of the day. Therefore, for a healthy family relationship, appreciation is needed. It enables self esteem to be built and people are motivated to continue behaving in a positive way to one another. In a family, appreciation means

  • Treating family members as our best friends
  • Showing love to one another in small ways on a daily basis
  • Receiving and giving compliments gracefully
  • Showing a lot of appropriate affection
  • Applauding the strengths and achievements of family members
  • Taking time to say, ‘I love you’, more often
  • Remembering and celebrating special occasions such as birthdays, anniversaries
  • Creating a friendly atmosphere in the home


Developing the art of communication is what makes any family strong. Developing communication skills calls for family members to spend more time with one another, talking about everything and anything ranging from small and trivial issues to important life changing issues. Families that do not value communication can never build great relationships with one another or even out of the family circle. Communication is the way emotions and love are expressed therefore we can not help but keep communication a part of us to foster great family ties. Good communication calls for;

  • Trusting each other
  • Listening and not just hearing, more so without distraction
  • Going the extra mile to check what one really meant in case there was something unclear
  • Trusting one another
  • Being honest and open but also kind
  • Avoiding reading between lines or reading one’s mind
  • Walking in the other person’s shoes
  • Avoiding criticism; more so negative criticism, evaluating as well as acting superior
  • Dealing with specifics and not generalities
  • Tackling one issue at a time
  • Attacking and dealing with an issues not an individual
  • Developing an understanding attitude


Time together

For a family to come out of weakness to strength, they need to spend more time with each other. We need to avoid the issue of, ‘I am busy’ all the time, if we are to build great family relations. Some people may say that in as much as we do not spend a lot of time together, the few times that we do have quality to them. However, studies have shown that quality and quantity matter for meaningful relationships to be developed and maintained. A lot of time together that is filled with arguments and bickering will not yield much nor will small times that are filled with quality activities. Family memoirs are built on lots of family activities and lots of time spent together. Time together as a family means

  • Communication is enhanced
  • A family identity is developed; family members develop a sense of belonging, unity is fostered
  • ‘Fizzle and die’ that is found in some marriages is avoided
  • Alienation, loneliness, and isolation are taken out of the picture
  • An opportunity to develop other family strengths

One may wonder what to do when families or family members come together and the answer will be anything and everything. They could;

  • Share yard and house chores
  • Engage in outdoor sports
  • Go for picnics
  • Share meals
  • Go for walks, mountain hike
  • Engage in camping
  • Go for movies
  • Engage in indoor games like scrabble, jigsaw puzzles
  • Go for bowling
  • Engage in religious activities
  • Engage in school activities such as attending one’s recital
  • Celebrate a special occasion like a birthday, an anniversary


For strong family relationships to be built people need to be committed to one another; they need to value family unity. Devotion allows for a firm foundation to be established for strong family ties. Devoted family members have this in mind;

  • Every family member is valuable
  • Bad times do not necessarily mean destroyed family ties
  • Sexual faithfulness is important in marriage
  • Family is number one priority
  • Work (office or family business) comes after family
  • Sacrifices have to be made for family to thrive
  • Forgiveness must be given to every family member
  • Priorities have to be set and known
  • Family traditions must be set and treasured
  • Some of the common goals have to be shared

Coping ability

For family members to say that they have strong family relationships, they should look at storms, stress and the like as opportunities to grow other than burdens. A strong family must have good coping skills for the ability to cope and solve problems is what gives a family the confidence that they can deal with issues that come their way. There are a number of coping strategies and they include the following;

  • No single family member has to shoulder all the responsibility that comes with solving a crisis, every family member has to converge and help in solving it. Through sharing this responsibility, every one in the family can pour his or her energy in doing what they do best in order to solve the crisis.
  • Openness during communication makes solving of problems easier. During a crisis, uncertainty and change are experienced hence anger, anxiety, fear, guilt and depression come up. Therefore communicating effectively will give room to family members to freely air out their feelings and express their emotions and this is key to coming out of a crisis triumphantly.
  • There is need to see positivity in every situation hence focus on those positive issues when solving a problem. This is what counsellors call reframing: it is when one sees rose petals other than the thorns beneath. It is this positive perspective that enables the family to cope during stormy weathers without getting overwhelmed.
  • Flexibility is also needed if a family is to cope with problems and come out successfully. Strong families, change, bend and adapt and when the bad times are behind them, they are still one solid unit.
  • Some problems can be so overwhelming that it takes someone from without to help family get things in order with less damage. It is a strong family that can allow to get hep from outside for they realise that it does not show weakness; failure to solve problems in-house, but it is a sign of maturity; we can not do it all. Strong families realise that there are other people that can be brought on board to help end these problems with much more success than when they do it on their own. Outside help may be sought from church, friends, professionals, and extended family.
  • Spiritual resources such as the Bible, counsel from religious leaders can help families get through crises. Spiritual beliefs help families get things into perspective for they are usually a source of comfort, give a sense of peace and direction and give more meaning to life during times of turmoil.


Spiritual wellness

It does not matter what a family indulges in; religious services, ceremonies or none of the aforementioned things, a strong family needs to have a belief that gives them purpose and strength. This is called spirituality; a force that enables one to go beyond themselves and get connected to something larger than themselves. Many believe that humans have a spiritual side of them and it is this side that enables us to answer simple yet challenging questions such as, why am I here?, what is life?

Spirituality does a lot for a family more so when this spirituality is shared by all family members and the help comes in form of;

  • Providing a character expression for daily living
  • Providing spiritual heritage
  • Giving a family an awareness that there is a divine presence in their lives
  • Helping families cope in times of tumult
  • Providing meaningful rituals and traditions
  • Providing a sense of peace and freedom
  • Giving pointers for living
  • Helping a family maintain a positive sense of living

I believe that with the information given above, our family relationships will thrive and they will be maintained for generations to come.

Autism among children and adults


6Autism is a condition that presents complex disorders of brain development and it is characterized by problems with social interaction, non verbal and verbal communication impairments and issues with repetitive behaviours. These problems vary in degree. Before 2013, various autism disorders were looked at distinctly but after the month of May, they were all brought under the umbrella of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD is linked to difficulties in attention and motor coordination, intellectual disabilities, and physical health problems like gastrointestinal disturbances, and sleep disorders.

While autism seems to have its roots in the very early stages of brain development, its real signs are seen when a child is around 2 or 3 years


 Major Symptoms of Autism

Symptoms vary in severity however everyone with autism has the symptoms below;

Relationships and social interactions; the symptoms here are

  • Hardship in nurturing non verbal communication skills, for example, body posture, facial expressions, and eye-to-eye gazing.
  • Hardship in establishing friendships with people of the same age
  • Lack of enthusiasm in sharing interests, enjoyment or achievements with others
  • No empathy as autism sufferers have a hard time understanding the feelings of other people.

Nonverbal and verbal communication; the symptoms here are

  • Finding it hard to start up a conversation as well as continuing with an already started conversation
  • Repetitive and stereotyped language use as those having autism will repeat a statement or word that they have previously heard over and over again
  • Failure or delay to learn how to talk because about 40% of persons with autism do not talk.
  • Finding it hard to understand what their listener is implying by a certain action. For example, a person with autism may not understand when someone uses humour because they tend to interpret word for word hence fail to get one’s implied meaning.

Little interest in playing or activities; the symptoms here are

  • Teens and adults with autism may be taken up by particular topics or things in life such as license plates, video games
  • Children with autism always want to have a routine of activities or sameness in how they do their things. For example, they will want to take the same route when going to school and a deviation will not be accepted.
  • Very young children having autism tend to put a lot of attention on pieces or parts of a toy, say wheels instead of playing with the whole car.
  • Both children and adults with autism have stereotyped behaviour such as hand flapping, body rocking



Symptoms Among Children

Symptoms of Autism are usually seen by parents and caregivers during the first 3 years of the child. These symptoms are usually identified when the child does not want to be held, has delayed to speak, shows no interest in some games. Although some children with autism may start talking at the same time like typical children, they usually lose their language skills in the near future. There might also be confusion concerning the child’s hearing ability because there are times when a child with autism seems not to hear yet at some other instances he or she may seem to hear background noises like the whistling of a train.

If early and intensive treatment is sought, most children will improve in how they relate with others, communicate better as well as be able to help themselves as they get older. While many people believe that children with autism are in complete isolation and/or live in their own world, it is not the truth.

Symptoms Among Adults

  • Some adults having autism can actually live all by themselves and they can work, however, the degree to which this is possible is linked to their ability to communicate as well as the level of intelligence.
  • A few adults are in need of help mainly those that are not able to communicate and have low intelligence levels.
  • However, adults with autism that have high levels of intelligence are usually successful at their work and can carry on their lives independently but they still have problems relating with people.

Other Symptoms of Autism

  • Most individuals having autism have got symptoms that are similar to those of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, symptoms like social relationship difficulties are very severe with people having autism.
  • A few autism sufferers have got some savant or special skills such as musical abilities, calculating calendar dates.
  • Some others with autism may never feel pain

Open your mind.

Looking for help can be very big step for you but think about the outcome, relief and joy when you get help for your mental illness issues.



Depression: Symptoms and Types of Disorder

What is Depression?

Depression is a commonly misused word. A lot of people think that feeling depressed is just the same as feeling sad or down. Clinical depression is so much more than that. It’s actually a very serious condition which can affect a person’s mind and body.  People who are depressed often experience the feeling of emptiness, hopelessness and even helplessness. On the other hand, it is common for guys to feel more aggressive or angry. This condition can have a negative effect on the different aspects of their lives like relationships, work, social life, studies and more.


For someone who’s depressed, every day is a struggle to survive. They find it hard to do the things they normally do, interact with the people around them, perform daily activities and most especially, get through the day. Depression keeps them from enjoying life and being the person they used to be. This could go on for weeks, months and even years.



But the good news is that anyone can be treated. If they want to get better, the first step is getting help. Usually, people recover from clinical depression within 6 months to a couple of years.

Symptoms of Depression

Here are some of the tell-tale signs of depression. If you know anyone who’s experiencing at least 5 of the following, they should consult right away.

*Losing interest in the things you used to enjoy

*Loss of appetite


*Having trouble sleeping

*Low self-esteem

*Weight loss or weight gain

*Lack of energy

*Having trouble concentrating

*Avoiding other people

*Loss of sex drive or sexual problems

*Feeling anxious all the time

*Feeling guilty and worthless




Different Types of Depression

  1. Major Depressive Disorder

This type of depression affects the daily lives of people. It keeps them from functioning normally which makes it hard for them to sleep, work, eat and perform other basic activities.

  1. Dysthymic Disorder

This is also known as ‘mild depression’. It often goes unnoticed because it appears like it’s just a part of a person’s personality. Most people who suffer from this type of depression have been affected for years.

  1. Bipolar Disorder

This can also be referred to as ‘manic-depressive disorder’ or ‘manic-depression’. People who have a bipolar disorder tend to have two alternating moods such as extreme sadness and overly excitable behavior.

  1. Cyclothymic Disorder

This is the milder version of Bipolar Disorder. They also experience alternating moods but on a lower scale or level.

  1. Mood Disorder Due To a General Medical Condition

This is depression caused by a specific medical condition like heart attack, Parkinson’s disease, hypothyroidism, multiple sclerosis, stroke, cancer and diabetes.

  1. Substance-Induced Mood Disorder

This type of depression comes from the use or abuse of certain substances like alcohol, drugs, medication and toxins.

  1. Seasonal Affective Disorder

This type of disorder is experienced by some people during specific seasons or times of the year. The season which is the most common source of depression is winter.

  1. Postpartum Depression

This type of depression affects new mothers. It is usually experienced within one week to six months after childbirth.

  1. Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

This is a very uncommon type of depression. Women may experience irritability and depression one or two weeks before their monthly menstrual period.